According to Amnesty International: "The rights to liberty, fair trial and freedom from torture are enshrined in ICCPR Articles 9, 14 and 7 and African Charter Articles 6, 7 and 5. Mauritania also acceded to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in 2004 and ratified its Optional Protocol in 2012. Similarly, the Constitution of Mauritania upholds the right to liberty; Article 13 provides that “No one may be prosecuted, arrested, held or punished except in the cases specified by law” and Article 91 that “No one can be arbitrarily detained.” Article 13 also prohibits torture and other ill-treatment which is categorized as a crime against humanity. Torture and other ill-treatment are also criminalized under Law No. 2015.033 on torture, with a penalty of up to life imprisonment (Article 11). However, since 2014, Amnesty international has documented over 168 cases of arbitrary arrests of human rights defenders, at least 20 of which were subjected to torture and other-ill treatment. In the most highprofile cases, they have been transferred to remote prisons. [...] In November 2014, 10 IRA activists including Biram Dah Abeid, Brahim Bilal, vice-president of IRA and Djiby Sow, president of partner organization Kawtal, were arrested after taking part in a peaceful protest in Rosso, about 200km south of Nouakchott. They were detained incommunicado at the Rosso police station for three days before being transferred to the civilian prison of Rosso on charges including: administering an unauthorized association, incitement and participation to an unarmed gathering, assault on the forces of law and order and contempt of authority. They did not have access to lawyers."